Breton genealogies

The Vita secunda S. Winnoci (c. 1064), which gives the pedigree of the kings of Domnonia, and is composed of two segments a and b, states:

“Riwalus Britanniae dux filius fuit Derochi filii Guitoli filii Urbieni filii Catoui filii Gerentonis. Hic Riwallus, ad transmarinis veniens Britannicis cum multitudine nauium, possedit totam minorem Britanniam tempore Clotarii regis, qui Clodovei filius existitit.”

This suggests Riwal, who appears in segment b, belonged to gen. 0. I believe he was the father of Tristan.That Riwal was of gen. 0 is confirmed by Cartulaire de Landévennec, Cartulaire de Quimper and Cartulaire de Quimperlé. Those documents mention various dukes of Brittany. Conanus Sunnoc was Conan III. Alanus Hir Anger was Alan Fergant, i.e. Alan IV. Houel Huuel was Hoel II. Alain Canhiart died 1058.

The V. Winwaloei states the saint was a contemporary of Grallo, that is Gradlon Mur, who according to the above cartularies was of gen. 2. This conforms with the fact that Winwaloe was a nephew of Cadwy ap Geraint.

Riwal’s sister, Pompaea who was the mother of Tudwal, is likely to be Alma Pompa, the mother of Leonorius. The former son was was a contemporary of Deroch II and the latter of Childebert. Breton tradtion states that Pompaea was married to Hoel Meur. This is chronologically possible according to Chronicon Briocense.

Triens of Judicahel struck at Rennes 632 - 638

Triens of Judicahel struck at Rennes 632 – 638

Now turning to segment a of the V. Winocci, the Chronicle of Fredegar indicates Judicahel was a contemporary of Dagobert, and so belonged to gen. 3. That Judicahel was of gen. 3 is confirmed by Cartulaire de Redon as his descendant, Roiantdreh, took prince Salomon, who was duke of Brittany from 857 to 874, as her adopted son when her son died in 861.

Jonas, who is listed in segment a, appears in Culhwch ac Olwen as Iona, king of France, a companion of Arthur. His father, Riatham, is Riothamus who Jordanes called the king of the Britains and who was militarily active around 470.

Aurilla, who appears in the V. Melori Martyris, is said to have been the daughter of Iudoc who belonged to gen. 3. This would suggest Melor was of gen. 5. However, it is more likely that Aurilla was the daughter of Rydoch ap Brychan as indicated by JC 2 11. DSB 11 11 adds the comment “in Francia” and a gloss refers to him as Iudoc. Brychan is of gen. -3 since his daughter, Meleri, was married to Ceredig ap Cunedda Wledig.

 

Gen. ChB a ChB d ChB e CdL CdQ
19 Conanus Sunnoc
18 Alanus Hir Anger
17 Houel Huuel Houel
16 Alan Canhiarh Alanus Chaniart
15 Binidic Budic
14 Budic Bud Berhuc Budic Castellin
13 Diles Heirguor Chebre Diles Hergu Kembre
12 Aulfret Alesrudon Aufret Alefrondon
11 Gradlon Plueneuor Gralen Ploeneor
10 Fragual Fradleoc Ffraval Fradleuc
9 Budic Mur Budic Mur
8 Concar Cheroenoc Congar Keroenuc
7 Gradlon Flam Gradlem Flam
6 Daniel Unua Daniel Unna
5 Iahan Reith Jahan Reeth
4 Alanus Magnus Budic et Maxenri Budic et Maxenti
3 Salomon II Daniel Drem Rud Daniel Drem Rud
2 Hoelus Tertius Gradlon Mur Gradlen Mur
1 Alanus Judualus Tremorus Concar Congar
0 Hoelus Secundus Jonas Conomerus Tryphina Riuelen Marthou Ri Welen Mar Chou
-1 Hoelus Magnus Riatan Werochus I Riuelen Mor Marthou Ri Welen Mur Mar Chou
-2 Budicus Derochus
-3 Audroenus Rivalus Murmaczon
-4 Salomon
-5 Grallonus Magnus
-6 Conanus Meriadocus
Gen. CdQl d CdR CF JC 2 11 V. Melori Martyris
20 Berta
19 Conanus
18 Alan
17 Hoel
16 Alan Cainard
15 Binidic
14 Budic Castellin
13 Diles Heergur Kembre
12 Altfret Alefrudon
11 Gradlon Plueneur Roiantdree
10 Fraugual Fradleuc Louenan
9 Budic Mur Juduual
8 Cungar Keroenuc Argant
7 Gradlun Flam Custentin
6 Daniel Unua Judon
5 Jahann Reeth Urbon
4 Budic et Maxenri Urbien
3 Daniel Drem Rud Jedechaël
2 Gradlun Mur Tewdwr Waroch II Iacob
1 Cungar Budic Macliau Canao
0 Rimelen Marthou Melorus
-1 (Rimelen Mur Marthou) Rivodius Meliavus Aurilla
-2 Reidoc Budic
-3 Brachan Daniel
-4 Lex or Regula
-5
Gen. V. Winnoci a V. Winnoci b
3 Winnoch Judoc Judicahel
2 Juthael
1 Judwal Deroch II
0 Jonas Riwal
-1 Riatham Deroch I
-2 Withol
-3 Urbien
-4 Cathou
-5 Gerenton
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The king list of Gwynedd

The pedigree of the Venedotian kings is given in HG 1. However, this list poses a problem in terms of chronology until it is treated as two separate lines of descent, labelled HG 1a and HG 1b:

Gen. HG 1a
ChB a HG 1b seg.
ByA 28c
13 Owain
12 Hywel D.
11 Cadell
10 Rhodri M.
9 Merfyn F.
8 Esyllt
7 Cynan D.
6 Rhodri M.
5 Idwal I.
4 Cadwaladr F. Alain II
3 Cadwallon Salomon II
2 Cadfan Hoel III (Beli m. Rhun)
1 Iago Alain I Rhun Hir Perweur
0 Beli Hoel II Maelgwn Gwynedd Rhun R.
-1 Rhun [Einion] Hoel I Cadwallon L. Einion
-2 Budic Einion Y. Mar
-3 Aldwr Cunedda W. Ceneu
-4 Salomon I Edern Coel
-5 Gradlon Padarn B.
-6 Conan M. Tegid

Although later sources show Merfyn Frych as the husband of Esyllt, a viewpoint supported by Bartrum, this earlier document is correct in stating he was her son. As can be seen in the second column, the list states that Rhun was the father of Beli. This is correct but that individual was not Rhun Hir, the son of Maelgwn Gwynedd, who appears in the fifth column above.

Rhun Hir married Perweur ferch Rhun Ryfeddfawr, whose name appears in ByA 28c, and they both belonged to gen. 1 as shown in the table. Triad 79 tells us she was one of the Three Lively Ladies of Britain. ByA 28c errs when it says Perweur was the “Mam Beli m Rhun …”. As can be seen from the second column Beli ap Rhun belonged to the same generation as his supposed parents. Brut y Brenhinedd confirms that Rhun was the father of Beli. Historia Regum Britanniae wrongly asserts that Einion was the father whereas in fact Einion Yrth was a grandfather. It was Rhun ap Einion Yrth and not Rhun Hir who fled to Armorica. His daughter, Tymyr, married Hoel II who appears in Chronicon Briocense, see above table.

Both HRB and ByB correctly assert that Einion was Rhun’s brother. This allows us to solve a 1500 year old murder mystery which is not a whodunit but a “who was it dun to”, as we know the identity of the murderer but it is unclear who the victim was. Gildas wrote of Maelgwn:

In the first years of thy youth, accompanied by soldiers of the bravest, whose countenance in battle appeared not very unlike that of young lions, didst thou not most bitterly crush thy uncle the king with sword, and spear, and fire?[1]

The Latin text uses the word “avunculus” where the above passage reads “uncle”. Strictly speaking, that term means mother’s brother. However, in this context I believe this can be linked to the fact, given in JC 23, that an Einion was half-brother to Cadwallon Lawhir, Maelgwn’s father, through their father Einion Yrth. Their mothers were sisters, daughters of king Didlet.

Although HRB states Rhun escaped to Armorica after the death of Einion because he was driven out by the Saxons, it would seem that Maelgwn had a hand in it as well. After Maelgwn’s death his son successfully thwarted challenges to his kingship. However, it would seem that the rightful lineage to the throne was reestablished when Iago became king. As can be seen in the above table, Cadwallon ap Cadfan is correct when he tells Salomon II  in the ByB that their two fathers were two second cousins.

[1] Williams, H., 1899, 77