Breton genealogies

The Vita secunda S. Winnoci (c. 1064), which gives the pedigree of the kings of Domnonia, and is composed of two segments a and b, states:

“Riwalus Britanniae dux filius fuit Derochi filii Guitoli filii Urbieni filii Catoui filii Gerentonis. Hic Riwallus, ad transmarinis veniens Britannicis cum multitudine nauium, possedit totam minorem Britanniam tempore Clotarii regis, qui Clodovei filius existitit.”

This suggests Riwal, who appears in segment b, belonged to gen. 0. I believe he was the father of Tristan.That Riwal was of gen. 0 is confirmed by Cartulaire de Landévennec, Cartulaire de Quimper and Cartulaire de Quimperlé. Those documents mention various dukes of Brittany. Conanus Sunnoc was Conan III. Alanus Hir Anger was Alan Fergant, i.e. Alan IV. Houel Huuel was Hoel II. Alain Canhiart died 1058.

Riwal’s sister, Pompaea who was the mother of Tudwal, is likely to be Alma Pompa, the mother of Leonorius. The former son was was a contemporary of Deroch II and the latter of Childebert. Breton tradtion states that Pompaea was married to Hoel Meur. This is chronologically possible according to Chronicon Briocense.

Triens of Judicahel struck at Rennes 632 - 638

Triens of Judicahel struck at Rennes 632 – 638

Now turning to segment a of the V. Winocci, the Chronicle of Fredegar indicates Judicahel was a contemporary of Dagobert, and so belonged to gen. 3. That Judicahel was of gen. 3 is confirmed by Cartulaire de Redon as his descendant, Roiantdreh, took prince Salomon, who was duke of Brittany from 857 to 874, as her adopted son when her son died in 861.

Jonas, who is listed in segment a, appears in Culhwch ac Olwen as Iona, king of France, a companion of Arthur. His father, Riatham, is Riothamus who Jordanes called the king of the Britains and who was militarily active around 470.

Aurilla, who appears in the V. Melori Martyris, is said to have been the daughter of Iudoc who belonged to gen. 3. This would suggest Melor was of gen. 5. However, it is more likely that Aurilla was the daughter of Rydoch ap Brychan as indicated by JC 2 11. DSB 11 11 adds the comment “in Francia” and a gloss refers to him as Iudoc. Brychan is of gen. -3 since his daughter, Meleri, was married to Ceredig ap Cunedda Wledig.

 

Gen. CB a CB d CB e CdL CdQ
19 Conanus Sunnoc
18 Alanus Hir Anger
17 Houel Huuel Houel
16 Alan Canhiarh Alanus Chaniart
15 Binidic Budic
14 Budic Bud Berhuc Budic Castellin
13 Diles Heirguor Chebre Diles Hergu Kembre
12 Aulfret Alesrudon Aufret Alefrondon
11 Gradlon Plueneuor Gralen Ploeneor
10 Fragual Fradleoc Ffraval Fradleuc
9 Budic Mur Budic Mur
8 Concar Cheroenoc Congar Keroenuc
7 Gradlon Flam Gradlem Flam
6 Daniel Unua Daniel Unna
5 Iahan Reith Jahan Reeth
4 Alanus Magnus Budic et Maxenri Budic et Maxenti
3 Salomon II Daniel Drem Rud Daniel Drem Rud
2 Hoelus Tertius Gradlon Mur Gradlen Mur
1 Alanus Judualus Tremorus Concar Congar
0 Hoelus Secundus Jonas Conomerus Tryphina Riuelen Marthou Ri Welen Mar Chou
-1 Hoelus Magnus Riatan Werochus I Riuelen Mor Marthou Ri Welen Mur Mar Chou
-2 Budicus Derochus
-3 Audroenus Rivalus Murmaczon
-4 Salomon
-5 Grallonus Magnus
-6 Conanus Meriadocus
Gen. CdQl d CdR CF JC 2 11 V. Melori Martyris
20 Berta
19 Conanus
18 Alan
17 Hoel
16 Alan Cainard
15 Binidic
14 Budic Castellin
13 Diles Heergur Kembre
12 Altfret Alefrudon
11 Gradlon Plueneur Roiantdree
10 Fraugual Fradleuc Louenan
9 Budic Mur Juduual
8 Cungar Keroenuc Argant
7 Gradlun Flam Custentin
6 Daniel Unua Judon
5 Jahann Reeth Urbon
4 Budic et Maxenri Urbien
3 Daniel Drem Rud Jedechaël
2 Gradlun Mur Tewdwr Waroch II Iacob
1 Cungar Budic Macliau Canao
0 Rimelen Marthou Melorus
-1 (Rimelen Mur Marthou) Rivodius Meliavus Aurilla
-2 Reidoc Budic
-3 Brachan Daniel
-4 Lex or Regula
-5
Gen. V. Winnoci a V. Winnoci b
3 Winnoch Judoc Judicahel
2 Juthael
1 Judwal Deroch II
0 Jonas Riwal
-1 Riatham Deroch I
-2 Withol
-3 Urbien
-4 Cathou
-5 Gerenton
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Illtud

St. Samson was a generation younger than Illtud and was ordained by him at the abbey of Llanwit Major (Llanilltud Fawr).

Plate: Nash-Williams, V. E., 1950, The Early Christian Monuments of Wales

There is an inscribed stone at the church there which states it was prepared for the souls of Samson the abbot and others, one of which is a king called Iuthahelo, that is Ithel (Barturm incorrectly thought the stone bore the name Iltutus). This is likely to be Ithel Hael of Llydaw, thus indicating Llydaw was not only the name for Brittany but also of a region of Glamorgan.

Illtud’s father was Bicanus, prince of Llydaw. He may have preceded Erb, king of Gwent and Ergyng, and been conflated with Erbic, a later king. This would suggest Bicanus was of gen. -2 and Illtud of gen. -1. His mother was Rieingulid, daughter of Anblawd, wrongly identified as Amlawdd Wledig.

V. Samsonis states that Illtud was a disciple of St. Germanus but chronology indicates this could not have been the bishop of Auxerre. The V. Ninnochae states:

“Sanctus Germanus episcopus ex Hibernensium regione transmissus a Sancto Patricio archiepiscopo, venit ad Brochanum regem Britanniæ.”[1]

This individual, who was alive during the reign of Brychan of gen. -1, is likely to have been the Germanus who ordained Illtud. He was St. Garmon who, as indicated by Bartrum, was the Germanus of the Historia Brittonum. HB 39 suggests he was probably of the same generation as Vortigern’s daughter, that is gen -2.

[1] Baring-Gould, S., Fisher, J., 1911, 68.

Naval power

The triads give some indication of the naval powers at the time. Triad 14 mentions the Seafarers/Fleet Owners. Geraint ab Erbin and March ap Meirchion were both of Cernyw. There must have been frequent communication between this kingdom and those of Brittany for the LL to regard them as “one people and one language”. Triad 15 gives the Roving Fleets and Bromwich suggests the names may indicate they were Irish while those of the previous triad were British[1]. It may be that with Tintagel being on the north coast, the Cornish and Irish together controlled all trade going through the Irish Sea. Likewise Dumnonia and Brittany could have dominated commerce through the English Channel.

[1] Bromwich, R., 2006, 30.

Pre-Galfridian Arthur

The importance of Arthur, at least to the people of the West Country and Brittany, was not a creation of Geoffrey of Monmouth. This is indicated by Hermann of Tournai’s 1146 chronicle De Miraculis Sanctae Mariae Laudunensis which states that in 1113 nine canons from Laon in France were on a fund-raising journey that included Cornwall. They were shown local sites associated with Arthur. That there was at this early date landmarks associated with Arthur is remarkable in itself. What is even more intriguing is the incident that occurred at Bodmin in Cornwall. The French canons had brought the Shrine of Our Lady of Laon. A man with a withered arm came to be cured by the relics. The individual mentioning that Arthur still lived led to a quarrel with one of the French called Hangello and this in turn developed into a riot with order eventually being restored by the cleric Algardus. Hermann had mentioned that the Bretons, too, quarrel with the French with regards to Arthur.[1]

[1] Coe and Young, 1995, 46