Jocelin’s Life of Kentigern

In his Life of Kentigern, Jocelin combined the lives of the northern Cyndeyrn Garthwys, that is Kentigern, with the southern Cyndeyrn ap Cyngar. As a result the story appears to state anachronisms. However, in reality, Kentigern of gen. 2 would have been a contemporary of Moken if he was Morgan Fwlch, one of Barturm’s candidates for the name. However, when the story shifts to the south with with Dewi in Menevia, Cadwallon Lawhir and Maelgwn Gwynedd the saint was Cyngar, not Kentigern. Finally, the Vita returns to the north with Kentigern and Rhydderch Hen.

Gen. ByS 6b ByS 13 seg. ByS 14 HG 1b seg. HG 6 HG 10 seg.
3 Morgan
2 Cyndeyrn Garthwys Rhydderch Hen Coleddog
1 Cyndeyrn Owain Denw Rhun Tudwal Morgan Fwlch
0 Cyngar Asaph Urien Lleuddun Luyddog Maelgwn Gwynedd Clinoch Cyngar
-1 Garthog Sawyl (Benuchel) [Benisel] Cadwallon Lawhir Dyfnwal Hen
-2 Ceredig Pabo (Post Prydyn)
-3 Cunedda Wledig

Jocelin did not give the name of Kentigern’s father, perhaps, because of having to avoid choosing between Owain ab Urien and Cyngar ap Garthog. Cyndeyrn was probably the saint of Llangyndeyrn. Nothing is known about him as his story was absorbed into that of Kentigern.

Advertisements

Identifying Cynan Wledig

The name Cynan Wledig appears in its Latin form as Aurelius Caninus in the De Excidio where it is listed as one of five tyrants alive at the time of Gildas. Their territories were as follows:

Dumnonia (Constantinus),
? (Aurelius Caninus),
Dyfed (Vortiporius),
Rhos (Cuneglasus),
Gwynedd (Maglocunus).

Bartrum suggests Aurelius Caninus can be identified with Cynan Garwyn of Powys, which is plausible. He adds that there is no consensus as to which kingdom he ruled. Gildas’s list follows a geographical progression which suggests Cynan ruled over an area of South Wales. He would have been of gen. 0 or 1, as were the other tyrants, suggesting that he may have been Cynan ap Casanauth Wledig of Powys, see JC20 16b at Sanan ferch Elise.

The five rulers appear in the DEB after the Ambrosius passage. It may be they inherited his kingdom as indicated by:

brenin Emrys y bumran
King Emrys of the Five Parts

[1] Cylchg LlGC XVIII, 414.

Why Ossa was not Osla Gyllellfawr

The identification of Osla Gyllellfawr with Ossa, grandfather of Ida, king of Bernicia, as suggested by corrupted late entries in the Bonedd y Saint, shown below, is incorrect:

Gen. ByS 70 ByS 71 JC20 17 seg.
4 Eda Glynuawr Tegyth
3 Osswallt Oswydd aelwyn Gwynbei drahavvc Ceit
2 Mwc Mawr Drevydd Douc
1 Ydolorec vrenin Offa kyllellvawr Llewarch hen

The names given in the above chart are in the manuscript form. The first two individuals in ByS 70 are Oswald and his brother Oswiu, wrongly shown as his father but corrected in the above table. The third name would then be their grandfather, the Bernician Æthelric, wrongly shown as Oswiu’s father and this has also been corrected for. An alternative interpretation, which would be correct in terms of parentage, would be Oswine son of Osric son of the Deiran Æthelric.

Bartrum maintained the first name in ByS 71, Eda Glinfawr, is Æthelric’s father, Ida. However, that is impossible since Eda can safely be placed in gen. 4, more than a century after Ida. This conclusion is arrived at by noting Eda was the grandson of Mwng Mawr Drefydd who was in conflict with Mechydd ap Llywarch Hen. Llywarch can safely be placed in gen. 1. Furthermore, as Ossa was Ida’s grandfather he would have been far too early to be a contemporary of Arthur.

It would seem that the author of ByS 71 added cognomens that did not actually apply to Eda and Offa but instead belonged to other individuals with similar names. So, Glinfawr came from the name of the father of Ecgbert of York, Eata glinmawr, mentioned in HB 61. Likewise, Offa’s cognomen derived from that of Esla, see Dating the Wessex generations.

Melville Richards’ identification of the 8th C Offa of Mercia is unlikely for the chronological reason.[1] Also, the dissimilarity in the names suggests it is doubtful that Osla was the Kentish Ochta as suggested by Idris Llewelyn Foster.[2]

[1] Richards, M., 1948, 46.
[2] Foster, I. L., 1961, 42.

Illtud

St. Samson was a generation younger than Illtud and was ordained by him at the abbey of Llanwit Major (Llanilltud Fawr).

Plate: Nash-Williams, V. E., 1950, The Early Christian Monuments of Wales

There is an inscribed stone at the church there which states it was prepared for the souls of Samson the abbot and others, one of which is a king called Iuthahelo, that is Ithel (Barturm incorrectly thought the stone bore the name Iltutus). This is likely to be Ithel Hael of Llydaw, thus indicating Llydaw was not only the name for Brittany but also of a region of Glamorgan.

Illtud’s father was Bicanus, prince of Llydaw. He may have preceded Erb, king of Gwent and Ergyng, and been conflated with Erbic, a later king. This would suggest Bicanus was of gen. -2 and Illtud of gen. -1. His mother was Rieingulid, daughter of Anblawd, wrongly identified as Amlawdd Wledig.

V. Samsonis states that Illtud was a disciple of St. Germanus but chronology indicates this could not have been the bishop of Auxerre. The V. Ninnochae states:

“Sanctus Germanus episcopus ex Hibernensium regione transmissus a Sancto Patricio archiepiscopo, venit ad Brochanum regem Britanniæ.”[1]

This individual, who was alive during the reign of Brychan of gen. -1, is likely to have been the Germanus who ordained Illtud. He was St. Garmon who, as indicated by Bartrum, was the Germanus of the Historia Brittonum. HB 39 suggests he was probably of the same generation as Vortigern’s daughter, that is gen -2.

[1] Baring-Gould, S., Fisher, J., 1911, 68.

Maeswig Gloff and Mar ap Ceneu

Bartrum argued that Maeswig and Mar were names for the same individual. However, to understand why this was not the case we need to begin with Onnengreg f. Gwallog m. Lleenog who ByS 48 tells us was the wife of Meurig ab Idno:

Gen. ByS 48 ByA 13 ByS 12
3 Elaeth Frenin
2 Meurig Onnengreg Meurig Mabon Deiniol
1 Idno Gwallog Idno Dunod Fwr Dwywai
0 Lleenog Meirchion Pabo Post Prydyn Lleenog

ByA 13 provides additional information that Meurig had a brother named Mabon and that Idno was the son of Meirchion. We may, therefore, conclude Meirchion and Lleenog were of the same generation. The question is which generation. Bartrum adopts the view that the father of Idno was Meirchion Gul, an assertion that appears in the ByS G 54 of c. 1510, see diagram below.

Descendants of Ceneu

However, this descent, which implies Idno’s father belonged to gen. -1, is not shown in any other source. ByS 12, see the table above, shows Lleenog belonged to the same generation as Pabo Post Prydyn who is known to have belonged to gen. 0, see Pabo and Sawyl, allowing us to conclude Meirchion and Lleenog were also of that generation. We may now maintain that Maeswig Gloff, the  father of Lleenog, was the son of Mar ap Ceneu as shown in the table below.

Gen. HG 9 JC 36 ByA 28c
2 (Beli)
1 Gwallog Gwallog Rhun Perweur
0 Lleenog Lleenog Rhun Ryfeddfawr
-1 Maeswig Gloff [Maeswig Gloff] Einion
-2 [Mar] Mar Mar
-3 Ceneu [Ceneu] Ceneu
-4 Coel Hen Coel Hen Coel Hen

ByA 28c demonstrates that Mar belonged to gen. -2 and so we can discount the possibility tha Maeswig was the father of Mar. Curiously,  Bartrum’s assertion, whether right or wrong, that Ceredig ap Gwallog died in 620 is more in line with my analysis rather than his own.

Clinog Eitin and Clydno Eidin

Clinog and Clydno have been identified as the same person. The former name is said to be a corruption of the latter. Also, the two names share the same cognomen, which means Edinburgh. However, their pedigrees indicate they were not the same individual as the following table, which uses the manuscript form of their names, illustrates. Clinog was three generations earlier than Clydno.

Gen. HG 7 BGG 3 ByS 15
4 Gorỽst
3 gỽeith hengaer eiryorỽy
2 Clydno Eidin elphin glydno eidin
1 Kynnỽyt Kynnỽydyon vryen
0 Kynuelyn
-1 [C]linog eitin Arthwys
-2 Cinbelim Mar
-3 Dumngual hen Keneu
-4 Coel

(Three other sons of Cynwyd Cynwydion who are mentioned in BGG 3 have not been included in the above table .)

In ByS 15 Clydno appears as the father of Euronwy, the wife of Gwaith Hengaer and the mother of St. Gwrwst. In Culhwch ac Olwen his daughter is mentioned in a list of “the gentle, golden-torqued ladies of this Island” as “Eurneid daughter of Clydno Eidin”.[1]The medieval poem Y Gododdin by Aneirin celebrates the valour of his son, Cynon, in the battle of Catraeth which occurred c. 600. Bartrum maintained CO’s claim of Eurneid being one of the ladies at Arthur’s Court is an anachronism.[2] However, it is likely she was a daughter of Clinog, and not Clydno.

[1] Davies, S., 2007, 188.
[2] Bartrum P. C., 2009, 295.