Cadwaladr Fendigaid

There is an entry in Hengwrt 33 V, NLW Cwrtmawr 453 (c.1615×1630) that states:

“The age of the Lord when Cadwaladr Vendigaid went to Rome: 653.”[1]

There are two possible chronologies for Cadwaladr Fendigaid:

1. HRB XII 14 tells us his mother was a sister of Penda. This is confirmed by ByA 28a:

“Mam Gatwaladyr vendigait, merch Pyt, chwaer y Banna ap Pyt.”[2]

where Panna ap Pyd is the Welsh for Penda son of Pybba. The Annales Cambriae tells us his father died at ‘bellum cantscaul’ c.632 to 634. Bartrum estimated her marriage to Cadwallon c. 632.[3]  Thus, AC dating Cadwaladr’s death in 682, during a plague, is plausible. That there was indeed a plague around this time is confirmed by entries in a number of Irish annals.

2. Bartrum argued that the plague in which Cadwaladr died actually occurred in 664. Reference to it is given by Bede:

“In the same year of our Lord 664, there happened an eclipse of the sun, on the third day of May, about the tenth hour of the day. In the same year, a sudden pestilence …”[4]

The timing of the eclipse is accurate to within days, as the following reconstruction of the eclipse path shows:

Total Solar Eclipse of 1 May, 664 AD. NASA GSFC.

The earlier date is supported by HB 64 which talks of his death during the reign of Oswy. HRB states Cadwaladr reigned for 12 years which would give a start to his reign close to the time of his Rome visit. Charles Oman argued that HRB dating his death in Rome to 689 is a conflation with the Wessex Ceadwalla.[5]

The second of the two chronologies appears to carry more weight.

[1] Guy, B., 2016, 23.
[2] Bartrum, P.C., 1966, 91.
[3] Bartrum, P.C., 1993, 90.
[4] Sellar, A.M., 1907.
[5] Oman, C., 1921.

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The two Teilos

The Vita Teliaui mentions the following kings as Teilo’s contemporaries:

“Teudiric filio teithpall. Idon filio ynyr guent. Gurcant maur. Mailcun. Aircol lauhir. Catgucaun tredicil. Rein.”[1]

The dating for each of the seven kings listed will be considered.

1. Tewdrig ap Teithfall was of gen. -3. However, that name was at times incorrectly ascribed to Tewdrig ap Llywarch of gen. 1. see Tewdrig.

2. The Buchedd Beuno states Iddon ab Ynyr Gwent had dealings with Cadwallon ap Cafan who belonged to gen. 3, see list 1a in Harleian Genealogies. This dating for Iddon is confirmed by the Liber Landavensis which tells us:

“In the time of the aforesaid King Iddon, the Saxons came into his country to plunder, and he with his army pursued them, and in his way came to St. Teilo …”[2]

Bartrum claims the chronology indicated by the LL is imposssible as Teilo was a contemporary of Dewi. However, the Dewi concerned could have been the later individual, see The two bishop Davids.

3. Gwrgan Fawr was the father of Onbrawst who was married to Meurig ap Tewdrig.[3] Meurig was of gen. 2 as shown in list 9a of Jesus College ms. 20.

4. Maelgwn Gwynedd was of gen. 0, see list 1b in Harleian Genealogies.

5. Aergol Lawhir was of gen. -2, see list 2b in Harleian Genealogies.

6. Cadwgon ap Cathen of gen. 4 has a cognomen that takes the form Trydelic in ABT 18 G and Tredylic in ABT 18 H2. As Bartrum noted, his giving land to Teilo is probably a reference to the church of Teilo.[4]

7. It is unclear which Rhain is being spoken of.

There appears to have been two Teilos. The earlier one was a contemporary of Tewdrig, Maelgwn and Aergol. A possible candidate for the earlier Teilo is Eiludd ap Stater of gen. -1 whose name appears in list 2c of Harleian Genealogies. The Vita explains the evolution of his name thus:

“After he grew up in age, virtue, and wisdom, he was called by intelligent persons by the suitable name of Elios; and Elios, in Greek, is interpreted in Latin by Sol, [the Sun;] for his learning shone as the sun, by illustrating the doctrine of the faithful. But illiterate men corruptly pronouncing the termination of the word, it came to pass, in course of time, that he was called not Elios, but Eliud.”[5]

As noted by Wade-Evans:

“Teilo is not said to be of the stock of Cunedda in B.L.D., nor is his name in P.K. This throws doubt on his Cuneddan origin.”[6]

The later Teilo, who was descended from Cunedda, was the son of Ensych, see list 5 in Bonedd y Saint, and belonged to gen. 1, as did Dubricius, see list 10a of Jesus College ms. 20, who he succeeded as bishop of Llandaff. He could have been a contemporary of Iddon and Gwrgan. He was not of the same period as Aergol Lawhir and as noted by Bartrum:

“In the Book of Llandaf persons named Aircot, Aircol appear as witnesses to two charters in the times of bishops Aeddan and Elwystl. But the properties concerned are in the Dore Valley and a different person is probably indicated.”[7]

[1] Evans, J. G, Rhys, J., 1893, 118.
[2] Rees, W. J., 1840, 361.
[3] Evans, J. G, Rhys, J., 1893, 140.
[4] Bartrum, P.C., 2009, 95.
[5] Rees, W. J., 1840, 333.
[6] Arch. Camb. 86, 163, n. 3.
[7] Bartrum, P.C., 2009, 5.

Elidir Mwynfawr

Elidir the Wealthy was killed in Arfon, according to the Chirk Codex, and a failed attempt to avenge his death was made by Rhydderch Hael, Mordaf Hael, Nudd Hael and Clydno Eidyn. Their pedigrees are shown below.

Gen. BGG 8 BGG 9 BGG 12 ByA 17 seg.
ByS 18 seg.
HG 7
2 St. Lleuddad
1 Dingad
0 Rhydderch Hael Mordaf Hael Elidir Mwynfawr Elidir Mwynfawr Nudd Hael
-1 Tudwal Tudclyd Serwan Gwrwst Briodor Gwrwst Briodor Senyllt Clinog Eitin
-2 Cedig Cedig [Gwidol] Gwidol Cedig Cynfelyn
-3 Dyfnwal Hen Dyfnwal Hen Dyfnwal Hen Dyfnwal Hen Dyfnwal Hen Dyfnwal Hen
-4 Ednyfed Ednyfed
-5 Macsen Wledig Macsen Wledig

Jocelin’s Life of Kentigern

In his Life of Kentigern, Jocelin combined the lives of the northern Cyndeyrn Garthwys, that is Kentigern, with the southern Cyndeyrn ap Cyngar. As a result the story appears to state anachronisms. However, in reality, Kentigern of gen. 2 would have been a contemporary of Moken if he was Morgan Fwlch, one of Barturm’s candidates for the name. However, when the story shifts to the south with with Dewi in Menevia, Cadwallon Lawhir and Maelgwn Gwynedd the saint was Cyngar, not Kentigern. Finally, the Vita returns to the north with Kentigern and Rhydderch Hen.

Gen. ByS 6b ByS 13 seg. ByS 14 HG 1b seg. HG 6 HG 10 seg.
3 Morgan
2 Cyndeyrn Garthwys Rhydderch Hen Coleddog
1 Cyndeyrn Owain Denw Rhun Tudwal Morgan Fwlch
0 Cyngar Asaph Urien Lleuddun Luyddog Maelgwn Gwynedd Clinoch Cyngar
-1 Garthog Sawyl (Benuchel) [Benisel] Cadwallon Lawhir Dyfnwal Hen
-2 Ceredig Pabo (Post Prydyn)
-3 Cunedda Wledig

Jocelin did not give the name of Kentigern’s father, perhaps, because of having to avoid choosing between Owain ab Urien and Cyngar ap Garthog. Cyndeyrn was probably the saint of Llangyndeyrn. Nothing is known about him as his story was absorbed into that of Kentigern.

The two bishop Davids

The AC B tells us that David was born 30 years after Patrick left Menevia:

“Anus sanctus dewy nascitur anno xxx post dis(c)essum patricii de meneuia.”

As the Irish annals say Patrick arrived in Ireland in 432 it follows that David I was born in 462. This is the David whose ancestry is given in the Welsh genealogies and is spoken of in the Historia Regum Britanniae. His death is mentioned in AC C:

“Sanctus Dauid meneuensis archiepiscopus in domino quieuit .”

The death of the later individual, David II, appears in the AC A and B texts respectively thus:

“Dauid episcopus moni iudeorum.”

“dauid meneuensis episcopus obiit.”

The B text has incorrectly interpreted the A text, the last three words of which are “manu in deorum”, that is “in the hands of God”. So, in reality there is no reference to Mynyw. The date of 601 is not totally inconsistent with the Irish annals which date his obit between 587 and 589.

Identifying Cynan Wledig

The name Cynan Wledig appears in its Latin form as Aurelius Caninus in the De Excidio where it is listed as one of five tyrants alive at the time of Gildas. Their territories were as follows:

Dumnonia (Constantinus),
? (Aurelius Caninus),
Dyfed (Vortiporius),
Rhos (Cuneglasus),
Gwynedd (Maglocunus).

Bartrum suggests Aurelius Caninus can be identified with Cynan Garwyn of Powys, which is plausible. He adds that there is no consensus as to which kingdom he ruled. Gildas’s list follows a geographical progression which suggests Cynan ruled over an area of South Wales. He would have been of gen. 0 or 1, as were the other tyrants, suggesting that he may have been Cynan ap Casanauth Wledig of Powys, see JC20 16b at Sanan ferch Elise.

The five rulers appear in the DEB after the Ambrosius passage. It may be they inherited his kingdom as indicated by:

brenin Emrys y bumran
King Emrys of the Five Parts

[1] Cylchg LlGC XVIII, 414.

Breton genealogies

The Vita secunda S. Winnoci (c. 1064), which gives the pedigree of the kings of Domnonia, and is composed of two segments a and b, states:

“Riwalus Britanniae dux filius fuit Derochi filii Guitoli filii Urbieni filii Catoui filii Gerentonis. Hic Riwallus, ad transmarinis veniens Britannicis cum multitudine nauium, possedit totam minorem Britanniam tempore Clotarii regis, qui Clodovei filius existitit.”

This suggests Riwal, who appears in segment b, belonged to gen. 0. I believe he was the father of Tristan.That Riwal was of gen. 0 is confirmed by Cartulaire de Landévennec, Cartulaire de Quimper and Cartulaire de Quimperlé. Those documents mention various dukes of Brittany. Conanus Sunnoc was Conan III. Alanus Hir Anger was Alan Fergant, i.e. Alan IV. Houel Huuel was Hoel II. Alain Canhiart died 1058.

The V. Winwaloei states the saint was a contemporary of Grallo, that is Gradlon Mur, who according to the above cartularies was of gen. 2. This conforms with the fact that Winwaloe was a nephew of Cadwy ap Geraint.

Riwal’s sister, Pompaea who was the mother of Tudwal, is likely to be Alma Pompa, the mother of Leonorius. The former son was was a contemporary of Deroch II and the latter of Childebert. Breton tradtion states that Pompaea was married to Hoel Meur. This is chronologically possible according to Chronicon Briocense.

Triens of Judicahel struck at Rennes 632 - 638

Triens of Judicahel struck at Rennes 632 – 638

Now turning to segment a of the V. Winocci, the Chronicle of Fredegar indicates Judicahel was a contemporary of Dagobert, and so belonged to gen. 3. That Judicahel was of gen. 3 is confirmed by Cartulaire de Redon as his descendant, Roiantdreh, took prince Salomon, who was duke of Brittany from 857 to 874, as her adopted son when her son died in 861.

Jonas, who is listed in segment a, appears in Culhwch ac Olwen as Iona, king of France, a companion of Arthur. His father, Riatham, is Riothamus who Jordanes called the king of the Britains and who was militarily active around 470.

Aurilla, who appears in the V. Melori Martyris, is said to have been the daughter of Iudoc who belonged to gen. 3. This would suggest Melor was of gen. 5. However, it is more likely that Aurilla was the daughter of Rydoch ap Brychan as indicated by JC 2 11. DSB 11 11 adds the comment “in Francia” and a gloss refers to him as Iudoc. Brychan is of gen. -3 since his daughter, Meleri, was married to Ceredig ap Cunedda Wledig.

 

Gen. ChB a ChB d ChB e CdL CdQ
19 Conanus Sunnoc
18 Alanus Hir Anger
17 Houel Huuel Houel
16 Alan Canhiarh Alanus Chaniart
15 Binidic Budic
14 Budic Bud Berhuc Budic Castellin
13 Diles Heirguor Chebre Diles Hergu Kembre
12 Aulfret Alesrudon Aufret Alefrondon
11 Gradlon Plueneuor Gralen Ploeneor
10 Fragual Fradleoc Ffraval Fradleuc
9 Budic Mur Budic Mur
8 Concar Cheroenoc Congar Keroenuc
7 Gradlon Flam Gradlem Flam
6 Daniel Unua Daniel Unna
5 Iahan Reith Jahan Reeth
4 Alanus Magnus Budic et Maxenri Budic et Maxenti
3 Salomon II Daniel Drem Rud Daniel Drem Rud
2 Hoelus Tertius Gradlon Mur Gradlen Mur
1 Alanus Judualus Tremorus Concar Congar
0 Hoelus Secundus Jonas Conomerus Tryphina Riuelen Marthou Ri Welen Mar Chou
-1 Hoelus Magnus Riatan Werochus I Riuelen Mor Marthou Ri Welen Mur Mar Chou
-2 Budicus Derochus
-3 Audroenus Rivalus Murmaczon
-4 Salomon
-5 Grallonus Magnus
-6 Conanus Meriadocus
Gen. CdQl d CdR CF JC 2 11 V. Melori Martyris
20 Berta
19 Conanus
18 Alan
17 Hoel
16 Alan Cainard
15 Binidic
14 Budic Castellin
13 Diles Heergur Kembre
12 Altfret Alefrudon
11 Gradlon Plueneur Roiantdree
10 Fraugual Fradleuc Louenan
9 Budic Mur Juduual
8 Cungar Keroenuc Argant
7 Gradlun Flam Custentin
6 Daniel Unua Judon
5 Jahann Reeth Urbon
4 Budic et Maxenri Urbien
3 Daniel Drem Rud Jedechaël
2 Gradlun Mur Tewdwr Waroch II Iacob
1 Cungar Budic Macliau Canao
0 Rimelen Marthou Melorus
-1 (Rimelen Mur Marthou) Rivodius Meliavus Aurilla
-2 Reidoc Budic
-3 Brachan Daniel
-4 Lex or Regula
-5
Gen. V. Winnoci a V. Winnoci b
3 Winnoch Judoc Judicahel
2 Juthael
1 Judwal Deroch II
0 Jonas Riwal
-1 Riatham Deroch I
-2 Withol
-3 Urbien
-4 Cathou
-5 Gerenton