Aeddan Fradog

DSB 12(12) tells us Lluan ferch Brychan was the mother of Aeddan Fradog:

Gen. DSB 12(12) PB 3i CB 15(12)
BGG G11
2 Gafran
1 Aeddan Fradog Aeddan Fradog Aidan Fradog Aeddan Fradog
0 Lluan  Lluan Gafran Fradog Lluan Gafran Fradog Dyfnwal
-1 Brychan II Brychan II Cynfelyn
-2 Garmonion
-3 Dyfnwal Hen
-4 Ednyfed
-5 Macsen Wledig

The PB 3i gives the same information with the added detail that Lluan’s husband was Gafran. CB 15(12) reads:

lluan mat Aidan Grutauc mat gafran vradavc[1]

The second “mat” (mater) should probably have been “filius”. This indicates Gafran had the same epithet as his son.

Triad 29 mentions the War-Band of Gafran ab Aeddan as being one of the Three Faithful War-Bands. and BGG G11 provides his ancestry back to Macsen Wledig. Note, this Gafran is not Gafran Fradog, the husband of Lluan.

Some versions of triad 54 speak of a costly ravaging by Aeddan Fradog at the court of Rhydderch Hael of gen. 0. The reference to this incident occurring at Alcud suggests a confusion with Rhydderch Hen. The poem Peiryan Vaban (Commanding Youth) refers to antagonism between these two kings:

o gyfrang ryderch ac aedan clotleu
From the encounter of Rhydderch and renowned Aeddan

[1] Cy 19, 30
[2] Ancient Wales Studies > Lluan ferch Brychan

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Pabo and Sawyl

There were two different individuals with the name Pabo:

Gen. BGG 4
HG 19
1 Dunod Fwr Cerwyd Sawyl Benuchel Cadwallon Lyw
0 Pabo Post Prydyn Guitcun
-1 Arthwys Sawyl Benisel
-2 Mar Pabo Post Prydyn
-3 Ceneu Ceneu
-4 Coel Hen Coel Hen

Triad 5 tells us Dunod was one of the Three Pillars of Battle of the Island of Britain and the son of Pabo Post Prydyn. His warrior character is confirmed in poetry by the words:

Dunod ap Pabo does not retreat.

Geoffrey mentions he was present at Arthur’s coronation. Triad 44 tells us he was at the battle of Arfderydd together with Gwrgi, Peredur, Cynfelyn Drwsgl (also of triad 5) and Dinogad ap Cynan Garwyn. He survived the battle and, according to the AC, died in the year 595. The B-text confirms that his father was Pabo. The father’s cognomen is incorrectly attached to the Pabo of HG 19. Various poems indicate he lived beyond Urien’s death and battled against Owain and Pasgen, sons of Urien.

His brother, Sawyl Benuchel is mentioned in the V. Cadoci as a tyrant who the saint dealt with for the theft of food and drink from his monastery. His cognomen means High-head or Proud. Triad 23 calls him one of the Three Arrogant Men of the Island of Britain. He is not to be confused with Sawyl Benisel whose cognomen means Low-head or Humble.

Sawyl Benisel was married to Deichter, daughter of Muiredach Muinderg, King of Ulster, who died in 489, as stated in the AT. Also, according to Elis Gruffydd, his daughter was married to Maelgwn Gwynedd. Most later documents corrupt his cognomen to Benuchel.

Cadwallon Lyw is likely to be the king who gave land at Llancarfan to Kentigern for a monastery, as mentioned in V. Kentigerni 23.

The battle of Crug Dyved

In the Book of Taliesin we have the poem entitled Trawsganu Kynan Garwyn mab Brochvael. which has the following line:

kat yg cruc dymet. aercol ar gerdet.
A battle in Crug Dyfed, Aergol flying.

This poses a problem of chronology as Aergol Lawhir was of gen. -2, see Why Bartrum’s dating of the Demetian Arthur is wrong, whereas Cynan Garwyn was of gen. 1, see HG 22 below.

Gen. HG 22

2 Selyf Sarffgadau
1 Cynan Garwyn
0 Brochwel Ysgithrog
-1 Cyngen Mawgan Pasgen Cateyrn
-2 Cadell Ddyrnllug

The chronology indicated by the above table looks sound for the following reasons. The AC tells us that Selyf died at the battle of Chester in the year 613:

Gueith Cairlegion, et ibi cecidit Selim filii Cinan.

The AT, refers to the same incident under the 611:

Cath Caire Legion ubí sancti occissi sunt, et cecidit Solon mac Conaín rex Bretanorum et Cetula rex cecidit. Etalfraidh uictor erat, qui post statim obít.

This statement provides the added information that another death at Chester was that of Cadwal Crysban, the king of Rhos, who would have been younger than Selyf. The victor was Aethelfrith. Triad 25 describes Selyf as one of the Three Battle-Rulers of the Island of Britain.

Cynan’s daughter, Tandreg Ddu, was the wife of Cadfan and the mother of Cadwallon. Brochwel was married to Arddun ferch Pabo Post Prydyn and was the son of Cyngen by Tudglid ferch Brychan.

However, if we now look at HG 27 we can see that Cynan and Cyngen have been interchanged, see The Powysian lineage. This is likely to be a corruption. Is it possible that a similar thing happened with the poem and a battle fought by Cyngen, who was of the same generation as Aergol, was wrongly attributed to Cynan? If this were to be the case it suggests Taliesin was not the author.

Cyfoesi Myrddin a Gwenddydd ei chwaer

This poem, Dialogue between Myrddin and his sister Gwenddydd, is from the LCH. It is taking place after the battle of Arderydd of 575. It then conflates Rhydderch Hen, who may have participated in that battle, with Rhydderch Hael of Gwynedd. The dialogue refers to his victory at the ford of the river Towy. This river flows through Caerfyrddin before entering Carmarthen Bay.

BGG 8 gives no name as successor to Rhydderch, see Rhydderch Hael and Rhydderch Hen, but the poem tells us it was Morgan Mawr ap Sadyrnin. The dialogue states Gwenddoleu, who was of gen. 1, see the table below, would have been the natural successor as supreme British monarch but for his death at Ardderyd. Sadyrnin was St. Sadwrn and there is a Llansadwrn both in Carmarthenshire and in Anglesey.[1] A stone bearing his name in Latin, Saturninus, was found at the parish church in Anglesey.[2] Nash-Williams states Sadwrn Farchog was the brother of St. Illtyd.[3] Their mother was Rieingulid, daughter of Amlawdd Wledig, according to the V. Illtuti. This allows us to conclude Morgan also belonged to gen. 1. The poem goes on to say Morgan was suceeded by Urien. As he too belonged to gen. 1, it may have been that Urien replaced Morgan as leader of the British forces. This may have been the reason behind Urien’s assassination. Bartrum had difficulty reconciling this sequence of three kings and suggested the sequence was in reverse order.[4] However, this was not the case and his mistake was to assume that Rhydderch Hael and Rhydderch Hen were the same individual.

Gen. BGG 6
  HG 8
1 Gwenddoleu Nudd Cof Urien Rheged
0 Ceidio Cynfarch Oer
-1 Arthwys Meirchion Gul
-2 Mar Gwrwst Ledlwm
-3 Ceneu [Ceneu]
-4 Coel Hen Godebog Coel Hen Godebog

At this point the poem goes back a generation and begins to give the pedigree of Gwynedd, starting with Maelgwn, largely in conformity with that given in HG 1, see The king-list of Gwynedd. The Venedotian sequence ends with Anarawd ap Rhodri Mawr.

[1] Wade-Evans, A. W., 1911, 30 and 74
[2] CISP LSADW/1
[3] Nash-Williams, V. E., 1950, 63
[4] Bartrum, P. C., 2009, 555

Rhydderch Hael and Rhydderch Hen

There were two Rhydderchs that have been conflated. The first was Rhydderch Hael, i.e. Rhydderch the Generous, who appears in BGG 8 while the second was Rhydderch Hen, i.e. Rhydderch the Old, of HG 6. ByS 18 indicates that Dyfnwal Hen, a great-grandfather, of Rhydderch Hael according to BGG 8, was a grandson of Macsen Wledig:

Gen. ByS 18 BGG 8 Pen. 268
1 St. Lleuddad
0 Dingad Tenoi Rhydderch Hael
-1 Nudd Hael Lleuddun Luyddog Tudwal Tudclyd Elufed
-2 Senyllt Cedig Cedig Peredur
-3 Dyfnwal Hen Dyfnwal Hen Morhen?
-4 Ednyfed Ednyfed
-5 Macsen Wledig Macsen Wledig

Note, although ByS 18 states Senyllt was the son of Cedig, I have shown them as brothers since B. Llawddog states Senyllt was the son of Dyfnwal Hen.

Rhydderch Hael’s sword, Dyrnwyn meaning ‘White-hilt’, is the first listed of The Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain.[1] The reason he was called generous was because he would give his sword to anyone who asked for it. However, it was always returned when it was realised that if it was drawn by any well-born man it would burst into flame. The Chirk Codex of the Welsh Laws states that he was one of the kings involved in the failed attempt to avenge the death of Elidir Mwynfawr.

Note, ByS 18 mentions other sons of Dingad of gen. 1 apart from St. Lleuddad. They have not been shown in the above chart. Although Lleuddun of gen. 1 ruled in Edinburgh, this is a southern pedigree as indicated by the fact that the Buchedd Llewddoc Sant says Dingad was king of Bryn Buga, i.e Usk. St. Lleuddad  succeeded Cadfan as abbot of Bardsey.

Dreon Lew was the son of Nudd Hael and is mentioned in triad 31 W :

and the Retinue of Dreon the Brave at the Dyke of Ar(f)dery(dd)

This allows us to give a floruit for him of 573, the date of the battle of Arderydd according to the AC. His father appears in triad 2:

Nudd the Generous, son of Senyllt

ByA 18 mentions brothers of Rhydderch Hael, including Morgan Mwynfawr, i.e. Morgan the Wealthy. Triad 20 calls him, together with Arthur, one of the Three Red Ravagers of Britain since wherever he went neither grass nor plants grew for a period. He is said to have owned the fourth of The Thirteen Treasures of Britain. It was a chariot which would rapidly take whoever was in it wherever they wanted.

Rhydderch Hael’s father was Tudwal Tudclyd. Tudwal means ‘leader of the people’ and Tudclyd ‘defender of the people’.[2] His wife, according to Pen. 268, was Elufed and it can be seen from the above chart that they were second cousins. The Whetstone of Tudwal is the eighth of The Thirteen Treasures of Britain. While it would sharpen a brave man’s weapon, it would blunt that of a coward.

The Stanzas of the Graves tell us that Rhydderch’s grave is at Abererch, which is in Llŷn. The Cyfoesi Myrddin a Gwenddydd states that he was followed by the king Morgan Mawr ap Sadyrnin who, in turn, was followed by Urien.

The reason why the two Rhydderchs were conflated is because their fathers shared the same name, as did their great-grandfathers. However, by comparing the table above with that below it can be seen their genealogies differ.

Gen. HG 6
 HG 5
12 Rhun
11 Arthgal
10 Dyfnwal
9 Rhydderch
8 Owain
7 Dyfnwal
6 Tewdwr
5 Beli
4 Elffin
3 Owain
2 Rhydderch Hen Beli
1 Tudwal Neithon
0 Clinoch Gwyddno
-1 Dyfnwal Hen Dyfnwal Hen
-2 Cynwyd
-3 Ceredig Wledig
-4 Cynllwyb
-5 Quintilus
-6 Clemens
-7 Cursalem
-8 Fer
-9 Confer

Using HG 5, Rhydderch Hen’s ancestors can be traced back to gen -9. Ceredig Wledig was Coroticus, the king of Alclud, to whom St. Patrick complains about his enslavement of some recently baptised Irish. Rhydderch was one of the kings who, according to HB 63, fought against king Hussa of Bernicia. The V. Merlini implies he fought in the battle of Arderydd. V. Kentigerni 45 indicates he died soon after the saint, probably in the year 614 and as predicted in the V. Columbae he did not die in battle.

[1] Bromwich, R., 2006, 259
[2] Bromwich, R., 2006, 508

 

Sanan ferch Elise

Image

HG 15 states:

[G]ripiud . teudos
caten . tres sunt
filíí nougoy .
et sanant elized .
filia illorum . mater erat
regis pouis

Bartrum correctly interprets this[1] slighlty corrupted text thus (the generation numbers are mine):

Gen. HG 15
10 Gruffudd Tewdws Cathen
9 Nowy Sanan
8 Elise

Gruffudd, Tewdws and Cathen were three sons of Nowy, the king of Powys, and Sanan daughter of Elise. JC 8 has:

Gruffud a the6dos. a cathen. meibyon y vrenhin powys. o sanant verch elisse y mam. Elisse. verch neuue hen

The full pedigree list in JC 8 is:

Gen. JC 8
14 Tewdwr
13 Griffri
12 Elise
11 Tewdwr
10 Gruffudd Tewdws Cathen
9  Vrenhin Powys Sanan
8 Elise
7 Nowy Hen
6 Tewdwr
5 Rhain
4 Cadwgon
3 Cathen
2 Ceindrech
1 Rhiwallon
0 Idwallon
-1 Llywarch
-2 Rhigeneu
-3 (Rhain Dremrudd)
-4 (Brychan I)

Comparing the two tables above, the ruler of Powys, Vrenhin Powys, in gen. 9 is clearly a reference to Nowy, Sanan’s husband. Bartrum errs when he maintains that the Nowy Hen listed in JC 8 and of gen. 7 is her husband’s name displaced :

Y Cymmrodor XLIII 57

In fact, he is shown correctly in gen. 7 and was Sanan’s grandfather. There is, however, a genuine error in the document when it states Elise was the daughter of Nowy Hen as Elise is a male name.

Note, Rhain Dremrudd and his father Brychan I are interlopers in this pedigree as the former was a contemporary of St. Cadog.

Bartrum proposed the idea that Nowy, the husband of Sanan, was the son of Madog using the lineage that appears in JC 16:

 

 

Gen.  JC 16 2nd and 3rd segs.
15 Lleucu
14 Adwent
13 Eliffer
12 Gronwy
11 Cynhaethwy
10 Ceno
9 Nowy
8 Madog
7 Sandde
6 Tudwal
5 Merin
4 Madog
3 Rhun
2 Cenelaph Dremrudd
1 Cynan
0 Casanauth Wledig Thewer
-1 Brydw
-2 Cadell Ddyrnllug

 

Cadair Early Series (Aberystwyth University)

Nowy ap Madog occupies gen. 9 as does Nowy in the previous tables and I believe Bartrum’s proposal was sound. Unfortunately, however, he abandoned this idea, as can be seen by his crossing out in this chart:

He tentatively adopted Dumville’s incorrect proposal that Elise, not Nowy, was the king of Powys and that his father was Gwylog who appears in HG 27 and on the PE.[2] In this scheme Nowy, the husband of Sanan, is made the son of Tewdwr ap Rhain, see the pedigree chart below:

 

 

Britons and Anglo-Saxons in the Early Middle Ages 51

Dumville’s chronology does not work. He suggests Tewdwr ap Griffri was a signatory of a land charter dated 934. In fact the LL states this individual was Tewdwr ab Elise.

[1] Cy XLIII 53
[2] Dumville, D.N., 1993

The Powysian lineage

Understanding the descent of the kings of Powys poses considerable problems. These can be resolved when it is realised that the sons attributed to Vortigern (Gwrtheyrn Gwrtheneu) are in reality the offsprings of Cadell Ddyrnllug. The reason behind this intentionally incorrect attribution is given in HB 32-35. It tells how the royals of Powys were descendants of Cadell whose origins were humble. HB 34 tells us Cadell had nine sons. The Harleian manuscript gives the names of five of them, although they are incorrectly listed not as siblings but as sons of each other:

Gen. HG 22
2 Selyf Sarffgadau
1 Cynan Garwyn
0 Brochwel Ysgithrog
-1 Cyngen Mawgan Pasgen Cateyrn
-2 Cadell Ddyrnllug
Gen. HG 23
5 [H?]esselis
4 Gwrhaearn
3 Elfoddw
2 Cynin
1 Millo
0 Camuir
-1 Brydw Cateyrn
-2 Cadell Ddyrnllug
Gen. HG 27    
9 Cyngen
8 Cadell
7 Brochwel
6 Elise
5 Gwylog
4 Beli
3 Eiludd
2 Selyf Sarffgadau
1 Cynan Garwyn
0 Brochwel Ysgithrog
-1 Cyngen Glodrydd Mawgan Pasgen Cateyrn
-2 Cadell Ddyrnllug
-3 Selevan

The PE mentions four of the sons:

CONCE[NN]  PASCEN[T]  MAU[N]  ANNAN [+]  BRITU

The third and fourth elements of this part of the inscription is a reference to a single name, i.e. Mawgan. It is claimed the PE states they were the sons of Gwrtheyrn. However, this may be a misreading and the above four names were not being linked to Gwrtheyrn but rather to the largely missing previous lines. Following the above text the inscription reads:

A[ ]T[ ]M FILIUS GUARTHI[ ] QUE(m) BENED[ ] GERMANUS

HB 48 tells us that Gwrtheyrn’s son, Faustus, by his incestuous relation with his daughter, was brought up by Germanus. So, the first word in the above text may be a reference to Faustus, the only genuinely known son of Gwrtheyrn. This interpretation is supported by the use of the singular form ‘filius’.

The first segment of ABT 6k, shown below, matches the above HG 27:

Gen. ABT 6k 1st seg. ABT 6k 2nd. seg.
10 Rhodri Mawr
9 Merfyn Frych  Nest
8 Cadell
7 Brochwel
6 Elise
5 Gwylog
4 Beli
3 Eiludd
2 Selyf Sarffgadau
1 Cynan Garwyn
0 Brochwel Ysgithrog
-1 Cyngen Glodrydd
-2 Cadell Ddyrnllug
-3 Pasgen Brydw Rhuddfedel Frych Cyndeyrn
-4 Gwrtheyrn Gwrtheneu

Although the manuscript states Nest was the mother of Merfyn Frych the above table shows her as his wife. This is indicated as being the case in JC 18.

The second segment promotes the myth that, except for Cyngen, the sons of Cadell were, in reality, the sons of Gwrtheyrn. As noted by Phillimore the name Cateyrn has been ‘tortured’ into the form Cyndeyrn by later genealogies.[1] Vermaat explains the presence in the list of Rhuddfedel as a reference to the battle at Rithergabail where Cateyrn died.[2]

Interestingly, with the aid of the LaB, HB M 49  and GaC 2 it is possible to trace the Powysian ancestry back to the 2nd century BCE. The manuscript form of the names are given:

Gen. LaB HB M 49
9 Fernmail
8 Teudubir
7 Pascent
6 Guoidcant
5 Moriud
4 Eldat
3 Eldoc
2 Beuno Paul
1 Bugi Mepurit
0 Gwnlliw Briacat
-1 Tegit Pascent
-2 Kadell Drynlluc
-3 [Faustus] [Faustus]
-4 Gortegyrun Guorthigirn Guortheneu
-5 Gorthevyn Guitaul
-6 Gorthgeyrun Guitolin
-7 [Gloiuda] Gloiuda
-8 [Paul Merion] Paul Merion
-9 [Gloiu] Gloiu
-10 [Rhifedel] [Rhifedel]
-11 Rutegyrn [Rutegyrn]
-12 Deheuwynt [Deheuwynt]
-13 Eudegan [Eudegan]
-14 Eudegern [Eudegern]
-15 Elud [Elud]
-16 Endos [Endos]
-17 Endolen [Endolen]
-18 Avallad [Avallad]
-19 Amalech [Amalech]
-20 Belim [Belim]

LaB goes on to say Beli was the son of Anna. Rhifedel of gen. -10 does not appear in either of the above documents. However, he is the only known son of Rhydeyrn and appears in HG 10, GaC 2 and ABT 1c. The last king mentioned in the above list from the HB, Ffernfael ap Tewdwr, was reigning in Buellt and Gwrtheyrnion at the time the document was written according to the manuscript, i.e. c. 830, confirming he belonged to gen. 9.
[1] Cy IX, 179 n. 5
[2] Vortigern Studies > Vortigern > The Family of Vortigern > Catigern, son of Vortigern