Maeswig Gloff and Mar ap Ceneu

Bartrum argued that Maeswig and Mar were names for the same individual. However, to understand why this was not the case we need to begin with Onnengreg f. Gwallog m. Leenog who ByS 48 tells us was the wife of Meurig ab Idno:

Gen. ByS 48 ByA 13 ByS 12
3 Elaeth Frenin
2 Meurig Onnengreg Meurig Mabon Deiniol
1 Idno Gwallog Idno Dunod Fwr Dwywai
0 Leenog Meirchion Pabo Post Prydyn Lleenog

ByA 13 provides additional information that Meurig had a brother named Mabon and that Idno was the son of Meirchion. We may, therefore, conclude Meirchion and Leenog were of the same generation. The question is which generation. Bartrum adopts the view that the father of Idno was Meirchion Gul, an assertion that appears in the ByS G 54 of c. 1510, see diagram below.

Descendants of Ceneu

However, this descent, which implies Idno’s father belonged to gen. -1, is not shown in any other source. ByS 12, see the table above, shows Lleenog belonged to the same generation as Pabo Post Prydyn who is known to have belonged to gen. 0, see Pabo and Sawyl, allowing us to conclude Meirchion and Leenog were also of that generation. We may now maintain that Maeswig Gloff, the  father of Leenog, was the son of Mar ap Ceneu as shown in the table below.

Gen. HG 9 JC 36 ByA 28c
2 (Beli)
1 Gwallog Gwallog Rhun Perweur
0 Leenog Leenog Rhun Ryfeddfawr
-1 Maeswig Gloff [Maeswig Gloff] Einion
-2 [Mar] Mar Mar
-3 Ceneu [Ceneu] Ceneu
-4 Coel Hen Coel Hen Coel Hen

ByA 28c demonstrates that Mar belonged to gen. -2 and so we can discount the possibility tha Maeswig was the father of Mar. Curiously,  Bartrum’s assertion, whether right or wrong, that Ceredig ap Gwallog died in 620 is more in line with my analysis rather than his own.

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Peredur and Gwrgi

According to BGG 5 the twins Peredur and Gwrgi were 5 generations later than Coel Hen which would suggest they belonged to gen. 1. However, DSB 12(14) tells us they belonged to gen. 2, see the table below.

Gen. DSB 12(14)  
2 Peredur Gwrgi Estedich
1 Eliffer Gosgorddfawr Efrddyl Urien Rheged
0 Nyfain Cynfarch Cul
-1 Brychan Meirchion Gul

This contradiction can be resolved using HG 12 which states the father of Eliffer Gosgorddfawr was someone known as Letlwm, possibly a corruption of the individual’s actual name, see the table below. He was not Gwrwst Ledlwm who was another son of Ceneu ap Coel. Using BGG 5 and HG 12 the descent of the twins Gwrgi and Peredur from Coel Hen can be reconstructed.

Gen. BGG 5 HG 12
2 Gwrgi Peredur Gwrgi Peredur
1 Eliffer Gosgorddfawr Eliffer Gosgorddfawr
0 [Letlwm] Letlwm
-1 Arthwys [Arthwys]
-2 Mar [Mar]
-3 Ceneu Ceneu
-4 Coel Hen Coel Hen

Hywel, father and son

 

Gen. ChB ByS G 24a
6 Conobertus
5 Alanus II
4 Salomon II
3 Hoelus III
2 Alanus I Cristiolus Rystvd
1 Hoelus II Howel vychan
0 Hoelus Magnus Howel
-1 Budicius Emyr Llydaw
-2 Audroenus
-3 Salomon I
-4 Gralonus
-5 Conanus Meriadocus

Frollo and Freothwulf

The HB gives the following list for the kings of the Deira:

“Theodoric, son of Ida, reigned seven years. Freothwulf reigned six years. In whose time the kingdom of Kent, by the mission of Gregory, received baptism. Hussa reigned seven years. Against him fought four kings, Urien, and Ryderthen, and Guallauc, and Morcant. Theodoric fought bravely, together with his sons, against that Urien.”

The FH states:

“In the year of grace 570, Frethwulf reigned in Bernicia seven years. In this year the people of Armenia embraced the faith of Christ …
In the year of grace 577 … This year died Frethwulf, king of Bernicia, and was succeeded by Theodoric, who reigned seven years.”

The inversion in HB’s sequence, Theodoric followed by Freothwulf, in the FH’s list may be explained by the CeC which gives a sequence of kings together with the lengths of their reigns:

“… Theodwlf uno, Freothulf VII., Theodric VII. …”

indicating the first name listed above was mistakenly written as Theodoric.

Freothwulf name becomes Frollo (Flollo in the Latin text) in the HRB. It takes the form Freol in The Awntyrs of Arthur. Indeed, in the Vulgate Merlin and Lancelot Frollo is said to be from Germany. Frollo’s flight to Paris may be a garbled version of Freothwulf retreating to the kingdom of Deira which originated as the civitas of the Parisi.

Those dates in the FH seem to indicate chronologically Freothwulf could not have been an adversary of Arthur. However, Urien fought against Theodoric and if Freothwulf preceded Theodoric then it is possible that Freothwulf was a contemporary of Arthur and the FH dating is incorrect. The FH does contain dates that may be questionable, such as Maelgwn’s death in the year 586.

Arthur and Batraz

From Scythia to Camelot draws attention to the similarity between the disposal into water of Arthur’s sword, Excalibur, by Bedivere for the mortally wounded hero in Le Morte Darthur and that of the Ossetian Batraz, as discovered by Joël Grisward.[1]
C. Scott Littleton postulated that the legend was transmitted to the west on the basis of a comment in the Roman History by Dio Cassius that 5,500 Iazyges, a Sarmatian people, were sent to Britain.[2]

However, it is likely that the transmission went the opposite way, from west to east, as a result of the Crusades. The name Batraz is likely to be a derivative from Paternus, the other name by which Arthur was known, as indicated on the Tintagel slate. J. Colarusso states that the protoform for Batraz was */pat‛(e)raʒ/.[3] He explains that the Nart epic took shape from ancient times up to the 14th C.

Bedivere or Bedwyr itself is another derivative, and a doublet of Arthur. He had a son called Amren just as Arthur had a son named Amr.

It would thus indicate that the link between the names Paternus and Arthur survived into the 11th C. The Tintagel slate tells us Arthur’s name was originally Artorgnou, before the loss of the epithet ‘gnou’. Whether the form Artor indicates that Arthur was named after Lucius Artorius Castus, as claimed by Linda A. Malcor, is a seperate question.

[1] Grisward, J. H., 1969.
[2] Cary, E., 1955, 37.
[3] May, W., 2016, Colarusso, J., Salbiev, T. (eds.), LXV.

The two Deiniols

There were two Deiniols who have become conflated and their pedigrees are shown in the table below:

Gen. ByS 12 ByS F 13
2 Deiniol
1 Dunod Fwr Dwywai
0 Pabo Post Prydyn Lleenog Asaph Deiniolfab
-1 Sawyl Benisel Gwenasedd
-2 Pabo (Post Prydyn) Rhain Dremrudd

Note, St. Asaph’s sister was one of the wives of Maelgwn Gwynedd and the mother of Eurgain. Maelgwn’s Wife and the Ring describes an incident involving her as well as St. Asaph. The Daniel referred to as having died in the reign of Constantine in the HRB was Deiniolfab, the brother of St. Asaph.

As indicated by the AC, Dunod Fwr died in 595. According to the HRB he was at Arthur’s coronation. He was also present at the battle of Arderydd. It was his son who predeceased him in the year 584 as indicated by the AC. His death is mentioned together with the battle of the Isle of Man and, perhaps, the two are related.

Tewdrig

These pedigrees relate to Tewdrig, son of Teithfall or Llywarch, king of Gwent. The BLD tells of his martyrdom. It was foretold that following his victory over the Saxons there would be peace for 30 years. The renewed conflict is referred to in the ASC under the year 577. The BLD also mentions Teilo receiving gifts from him.

Gen. ABT 15a BrMo seg. HG 28 JC 9a JC 10a
19 Morgan
18 Caradog Caradog
17 Iestyn Iestyn
16 Gwrgan Gwrgan
15 Ithel Ithel
14 Idwallon Idwallon
13 Morgan Mawr Morgan (Mwynfawr) [Hen] Morgan Hen Morgan Hen
12 Owain Owain Owain Owain
11 Hywel Hywel Hywel Hywel
10 Rhys Rhys Rhys Rhys
9 Arthfael Arthfael Arthfael Arthfael
8 [Gwriad] Gwriad Ithel Gwriad [Gwriad or Ceingar]
7 [Brochwel] Brochwel Athrwys Brochwel Cenedlon
6 Rhys Rhys Ffernfael Rhys Briafael Frydig
5 Ithel Einudd Ithel Einudd Llywarch
4 Morgan Morgan Morgan Morgan Tewdwr
3 Athrwys Athrwys Athrwys Athrwys Peibio Glafrog
2 Meurig Meurig [Meurig] Meurig Erb
1 Tewdrig Tewdrig Tewdrig Tewdrig Dyfrig St.
0 Teithfall Teithfall Llywarch [Efrddyl]
-1 Nynnio Nynnio Nynnio Peibio

These pedigrees are relevant to the earlier Tewdrig ap Teithfall, king of Garthmadrun.

Gen. JC 1a
JC 1b
V. Cadoci 46a
V. Cadoci 46c
1 Cadog Cadog
0 Cynog Gwladus Gwladus
-1 Brychan Brychan Brychan [Brychan]
-2 [Anlach] Marchell Anlach Marchell
-3 Coronac Tewdrig [Coronac] Tewdrig
-4 Eurbre Wyddel Teithfall Eurbre Wyddel  Teithfall
-5 Teithrin Brusc
-6 Briscethach