The triads give some indication of the naval powers at the time. Triad 14 mentions the Seafarers/Fleet Owners. Geraint ab Erbin and March ap Meirchion were both of Cernyw. There must have been frequent communication between this kingdom and those of Brittany for the LL to regard them as “one people and one language”. Triad 15 gives the Roving Fleets and Bromwich suggests the names may indicate they were Irish while those of the previous triad were British. It may be that with Tintagel being on the north coast, the Cornish and Irish together controlled all trade going through the Irish Sea. Likewise Dumnonia and Brittany could have dominated commerce through the English Channel.
*Outigirn is a name that appears in HG 10. But in JC 5 his name has been corrupted to *Kyndeern weldic.
A later individual with the same name is to be found in HB 62:
Then Dutgirn at that time fought bravely against the nation of the Angles. At that time, Talhaiarn Cataguen was famed for poetry, and Neirin, and Taliesin and Bluchbard, and Cian, who is called Guenith Guaut, were all famous at the same time in British poetry.
The document indicates that *Dutgirn or *Outigirn (Eudeyrn) lived in the time of Ida and Maelgwn. The corruption of the name Eudeyrn to Cyndeyrn that occurred in JC 5 may have occurred in the opposite direction, i.e. Cyndeyrn to Eudeyrn in the HB. Chronology suggests the HB reference is to Cyndeyrn Fendigaid ab Owain ap Cyngar who appears in ABT 18a and JC 13. He was not Cyndeyrn Garthwys ab Owain ab Urien Rheged of ByS 14.
The name Arthur derives from the Latin Artōrius. Its rarity is explained by it being not a native name in origin. Latin origin names that continued to be in regular use in Wales had Christian associations or were derived from the names of various professions. Its derivation is likely to have been:
L. Artorius > Brit. Artor > OW. Arthur
The name Artorius is likely to be a derivative of L. artus, meaning ‘joint’. Whether it developed from an earlier Celtic name is, as yet, an unanswered question. It cannot be assumed that the name Arthur belongs to the Art- family of names. Celtic *artos meant ‘bear’ and Arthur may have been compared to that animal but the Historia Regum Britanniae has a number of false etymologies. Moreover, that document may have also compared him to a boar.
The term Y Ogledd, the North, is taken to cover N. England and S. Scotland. The document BGG has a number of pedigrees unrelated to these areas. The obvious instance is the last one which includes Amlawdd Wledig. However, there are others like the one for Rhydderch Hael and Elffin and, therefore, I believe the term would have covered places like Gwynedd. It is claimed that the Welsh took stories from N. Britain and transferred them into Wales. This conjecture is incorrect as Y Gogledd would have included N. Wales.
It is unlikely less than two centuries after Christianity became the state religion that people would entirely abandon Paganism, the faiths of their forefathers, see Paganism in the Arthurian age. It is likely that Arthur straddled both Pagan and Christian beliefs. In V. Paterni he appears as two opposing characters, namely tyrant Arthur and Christian Paternus. Not surprisingly in a Christian document, Paternus is shown to be supreme as symbolised by him retaining the tunic despite the challenge from Pagan Arthur.
DSB 12(12) tells us Lluan ferch Brychan was the mother of Aeddan Fradog:
|Gen.||DSB 12(12)||PB 3i||CB 15(12)
|1||Aeddan Fradog||Aeddan Fradog||Aidan Fradog||Aeddan Fradog|
|0||Lluan||Lluan||Gafran Fradog||Lluan||Gafran Fradog||Dyfnwal|
|-1||Brychan II||Brychan II||Cynfelyn|
The PB 3i gives the same information with the added detail that Lluan’s husband was Gafran. CB 15(12) reads:
“lluan mat Aidan Grutauc mat gafran vradavc”
The second “mat” (mater) should probably have been “filius”. This indicates Gafran had the same epithet as his son.
Triad 29 mentions the War-Band of Gafran ab Aeddan as being one of the Three Faithful War-Bands. and BGG G11 provides his ancestry back to Macsen Wledig. Note, this Gafran is not Gafran Fradog, the husband of Lluan.
Some versions of triad 54 speak of a costly ravaging by Aeddan Fradog at the court of Rhydderch Hael of gen. 0. The reference to this incident occurring at Alcud suggests a confusion with Rhydderch Hen. The poem Peiryan Vaban (Commanding Youth) refers to antagonism between these two kings:
“o gyfrang ryderch ac aedan clotleu”
“From the encounter of Rhydderch and renowned Aeddan”
 Cy 19, 30
 Ancient Wales Studies > Lluan ferch Brychan