The line of descent of the Venedotian kings is given in H3859 1. However, this list poses a problem in terms of chronology until it is treated as three fragments as shown in the first three columns below.
|Gen.||H3859 1:1st seg.||H3859 1:2nd seg.||H3859 1: 3rd. seg.||ByA 28c||ChB|
|5||Cadwaladr F.||Alain II|
|1||Beli||Rhun H.||Perweur||Hoel II|
|0||Rhun||Maelgwn G.||Rhun R.||Hoel I|
|-3||Cunedda W.||Ceneu||Salomon I|
|-5||Padarn B.||Conan M.|
Although H3859 1 claims Essylt was the mother of Merfyn Frych later documents say she was his wife and this is generally accepted as correct. As can be seen in the second fragment, the list states that Rhun was the father of Beli. This is correct but that individual was not Rhun Hir, the son of Maelgwn Gwynedd, who appears in the 3rd fragment.
Rhun Hir married Perweur f. Rhun Ryfeddfawr whose name appears in ByA 28c and they both belonged to gen. 1 as shown in the above table. Triad 79 tells us she was one of the Three Lively Ladies of Britain. ByA 28c errs when it says Perweur was the “Mam Beli m Rhun …”. As can be seen from the first column Beli m. Rhun belonged to the same generation as his supposed parents. ByB confirms that a Rhun was the father of Beli. It was this Rhun and not Rhun Hir who fled to Armorica. His daughter, Tymyr, married Hoel II who appears in ChB.
HRB wrongly asserts that Beli’s father was Einion but I believe this contains a germ of truth in that Einion was Beli’s grandfather as shown in column 2. Moreover, I suggest Einion was the son of Einion Yrth. This allows us to solve a 1500 year old murder mystery which is not a whodunit but a “who was it dun to”. Gildas wrote of Maelgwn:
In the first years of thy youth, accompanied by soldiers of the bravest, whose countenance in battle appeared not very unlike that of young lions, didst thou not most bitterly crush thy uncle the king with sword, and spear, and fire?
In the Latin text the word for uncle is avunculus which strictly means mother’s brother. However, in this context I believe it is referring to the fact that Einion was not only half-brother to Cadwallon Lawhir, Maelgwn’s father, through Einion Yrth but that their mothers were sisters, daughters of king Didlet.
Although HRB states Rhun escaped to Armorica after the death of Einion because he was driven out by the Saxons, it would seem that Maelgwn had a hand in it as well. After Maelgwn’s death his son successfully thwarted challenges to his kingship. However, it would seem that the rightful lineage to the throne was reestablished when Beli became king. As can be seen in the above table, Cadwallon is correct when he tells Salomon II in ByB that their two fathers were two second cousins.